Bloom Update

Bloom Update

A couple local Bloom hubs in particular are popping off right now!

Broadfield Permaculture Uganda

  • Permaculture Arboretum Model is a forthcoming report that we are publishing through the University of Swansea in Wales. It describes the cooperative farm approach and how it achieves benefits of microclimate stabilization, food security, social repair, and economic sovereignty. Case studies and field data. By Charles Mugarura and edited by Magenta Ceiba from Bloom International.
  • Broadfield’s full project list / operational activities

Diamante Bridge Collective, Costa Rica

Updates to Bloom Network itself (also listed on our Gitcoin grant).

  • We raised $80,000 after 13 years of trying, thanks to Gitcoin and Giveth. 
  • Began development on the multi-user blogging website for local Blooms to be rewarded for contributing blog posts and action templates
  • Began engagement with Jason Wiener legal firm representatives Jacqueline Radebaugh and Yev Muchnik to set up Bloom Network’s federated cooperative structure. It will be governed by a series of DAOs (each local Bloom will have its own, and Bloom International which maintains the communications infrastructure for the network). It took us 10 years to find a legal structure that could hold our international governance model!!
  • Confirmed a Bloom Birth Party at Diamante Bridge Collective’s HOME Farm, prior to launching our call to Bloom in June when we will publicly invite people to form local Blooms.

Save the Nudibranchs! (video)

Save the Nudibranchs! (video)

On Sept 20, 2021, Bloom Network hosted an edutainment call all about nudibranchs. Come dive under the sea with the NudiCrew to visit nudibranch scientists from four different places in the world. Complete with Nudibranch songs and the Nudibranch dance!


SCIENTISTS Nudibranch Scientist 1 – Chris Taklis – Neraki Beach, Mt Pelion, Central Greece. The Founder and Manager of Hellenic Biodiversity Center (aka BiodiversityGR) Website: YouTube:… Resources: Poster about Nudibranchs of Pelion:… Field guide about Nudibranchs of Greece:…
Nudibranch Scientist 2 – Yara Tibirica – Currently in Cádiz, Spain Previous studied Nudibranchs in Mozambique, Australia and the Caribbean. Website: YouTube Channel:

Nudibranch Scientist 3 – Susan Anthony – Vancouver Island, Canada PhD at the University of Western Ontario on temperature effects on animals Masters at the University of Alberta looking at nematocyst-stealing sea slugs at the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre

Nudibranch Scientist 4 – Cakra Adiwijaya – Indonesia Studies the substrate and diversity of nudibranchs and works with Terangi, a non-profit foundation that aims to support the conservation and sustainable management of Indonesia’s coral reef resources. Website: YouTube:

MUSICIANS The original music heard in this call were written by: “Nudibranch Dance” – Will Tomson: – Nudibranch Dance music video – Will Tomson was an intern with Yara, and wrote this song while studying them in Mozambique.

“A Nudibranch Song” – Phizzy, Goo, Lumiel (this song was written especially for this event).… Phizzy: “Meanstyle Music Company” on Facebook –… Lumi: @Lovelumiel (Instagram) ABOUT BLOOM NETWORK Bloom Network is an organisation focused on sharing stories and actions working towards a Regenerative Future. Each Quarter we produce an educational zoom call on different topics. You can explore Bloom Network and its resources here:

Cross-Sector Finance Wiki

Since 2008, Bloom Network has been researching finance mechanisms that could be used to better achieve cross-sector finance, so that grassroots, nonprofit, for-profit and government organizations can collaborate on wicked problems such as climate change. There is a need for better incentive alignment and more grassroots leadership in how large amounts of funding are allocated. Our finance team has been researching multi-stakeholder collaborations, blended finance, cooperatives and blockchain technologies for how to best support cross-sector collaboration in Bloom Network. The Bloom wiki article on Cross-Sector Finance summarizes this research to date.

These practices have potential to resolve the limitations of sector-specific financial approaches in terms of power inequalities and more efficient collaboration, and to route revenue to grassroots climate change-related groups to support decentralized economic and bioregional wellness.

Cooperative Incubators

Cooperative incubators allow an entity, such as a community center, an ecovillage, or a digital community, to invest in a company in exchange for shares. For each of these companies, the cooperative will be a shareholder, receiving a percentage of equity in the companies it designs/incubates. (As an example, the incubator Y-Combinator receives 5% equity in the companies that go through it).

Profits from each company then circulate back into the membership of the cooperative as a whole, for participatory budgeting and furthering the coop’s purpose, and/or issuing member dividends to continue incentivizing participation and ownership in the coop. Bloom Network is mid-way through completing a financial spreadsheet template for tracking equity in a cooperative incubator.

The psychedelic investment platform, Fraqtal, is iterating this method through dialogue with Bloom.

Fraqtal cooperative sketch

Pooling Mechanisms

Here’s an illustration of various entities pooling capital to execute a specific project.

We’d like to flesh out the legal model for this approach, for example, are nonprofits allowed to receive profit from community investment, if the money is used for the nonprofit’s purpose. How can these different entities do due diligence to know how much they can trust each other to follow through with their commitment?

Tech Tools for Finance Pools: 

  • SuperFluid finance (programmable cash flows)
  • CommonsStack pools for public commons goods and programmable continuous funding. Donors can select a cause to contribute to, and the community of projects working in that area vote on which initiatives receive that capital.
  • Multi-stakeholder DAOs

Apart from pooled funds managed by a set of stakeholders, the following specific finance methods can be more widely deployed to support regenerative movements: blended finance, multistakeholder cooperatives, bonds, stable currencies on the blockchain, continuous organizations, and more. These will be published to an open-source directory on Bloom Network’s website, and the finance team will develop relationships with professionals who are available to advise on deal flows. Not all of these methods will be amenable to blockchain transactions early on.


For members and/or the general public to financially contribute to projects. 

Tools that any website can incorporate: 

  • Giveth (has a whitelabel option)
  • Investibule, a community-based investment platform developed by members of Slow Money
  • An approach like Gitcoin Grants
  • Superfluid – We’d like to see or create open-source subscription frontends for Superfluid streams, that creators and communities can implement on their websites.
  • Spendless: lock up your stablecoin, allocate the interest to a cause you care about. No loss (apart from opportunity + inflation costs) charitable giving, and you can withdraw your funds, in full, and use them as you need. This project grew from rTrees.


Bounties are tasks that are put forth by a community or team which need to be done in order to accomplish the project’s goals. Doers can take on the task, and receive payment or tokens upon completion. Once funds become available, the tokens may be exchanged proportionately for money available; or, they can be used more like a time bank, for example a graphic designer who has 500 tokens for a project they delivered, can transfer those to a massage therapist for their services, or to a local farm CSA to receive x months of a produce subscription. This has the potential to create more liquidity of resources in a community. Examples:

Projects Database (data sharing)

In the context of philanthropy, many groups are working on how to share a database of projects’ data to match them with philanthropic donors focused on their area of action/impact. This requires a data governance and relationship building process with both the projects/organizations and the funder coalitions who sometimes perceive conflicts of interest. Bloom Network is interested in matching these groups with web3 data protocols and leaning into the data cooperatives forming in that space who have developed good methods for governance, security, and permissions for accessing data. DataUnion and Rocketstar Foundation are among the web3 data cooperatives. Regeneration Fund, Regenerosity, and Thriving Resilient Communities Accelerator are among the impact-oriented groups. 

Some of the concerns with this approach, that need to be carefully handled, are how to involve the moment leaders on the ground with funding decisions so that class division does not drive the outcomes. Frameworks such as Just Transition and Decolonizing Wealth are relevant here. For example, philanthropists involving movement leaders in developing and revising criteria for what is most important to fund, is important. Sometimes this process necessitates training on unpacking privilege, and systemic analysis of philanthropy as an institution.

Contributors to this article:
Magenta Ceiba
Andy Tudhope
John Light
Reggie Luedtke
Marik Hazan

Governance Wiki

This wiki article summarizes practices for equitable leadership and governance.

Restorative Justice Governance

In one sense, the governance model for Bloom Network is predicated around the concept of restorative justice governance: rebalancing power dynamics so people and places can recover wellness. Leadership representation is similar to the demographics of the region. In cities, it dismantles gerrymandering and redlining issues that cause intergenerational inequality.

Movements such as Black Lives Matter in the United States, Indigenous governance coalitions in many countries, La Via Campesina and more have already formulated pathways to improve local sovereignty, regional resource abundance, and social equity. Invite leadership from these movements or include representatives.

Whenever possible, foreground Indigenous leadership. Examples:

Two Row Wampum Social Layer by Howard Davis and Dezirae Johnson. Their work is developing in collaboration with the Blockstack governance team through the Stacks project, academic collaboration with Ron Eglash, and leadership of the Longhouse, a 2500 year old governance protocol connecting the western hemisphere in The Great Peace.

Native Land Tax: Shuumi Land Tax is an example of a voluntary Native land tax that a local Bloom or any region could commit to. (Note that boundaries are not always clear cut nor mutually recognized.) This could be programmed into a smart organization to automatically allocate a percentage of membership fees to Native leadership. A module for this that is consistently updated by a team could be helpful.

Legal and Economic Entity Frameworks: Isaac Kinney of the Yurok Nation in Northern California, who is also part of a coalition of First Nations jurisprudence people: “My main objective in designing it is to have a local Indigenous-led multi-stakeholder organization (capacity-building is integral to all activities) dedicated to local food systems for environmental, social, and economic resilience. Any and all guidance is much appreciated.” He is looking at a Resource Conservation Structure (i.e. L3C, Philanthropic Fund, Lab), but possibly developing a new frame.

Regeneración Ecosistemas Perú is a project that supports Pastoral Peoples’ leadership in regional health of soil, water, fauna, and spirit ecosystems, and asserts an economic frame to counteract extractive economic situations that are encroaching on traditional balance and well-being.

Rights of Nature movements have made progress in designating personhood to natural entities. For example, in New Zealand the Whanganui River and Mount Taranaki are legal persons who are orphans, with Maori appointed their guardians (Indigenous people of New Zealand). The river is able to hold a board seat on corporations so businesses can give equity to the river. Those profits then go to the guardians of the river person, the Maori (details/link/fact check how this is phrased?)

Integral to restorative justice governance is shifting out of the power dynamic of domination backed by violence in governance. That dynamic contributes to the tragedy of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, the ongoing hunting of Black people, and toxic patriarchal cultures.

The implementation of restorative justice governance will be a combination of cultural, legal, and technical. 

Restorative justice governance requires redistribution of financial power. And that is why Bloom Network covers innovation work on finance structures.

Native Jurisprudence

Case studies of Native law holding primacy or healthy leadership in a region


  • Treaty of Waitangi (what’s the best article about this to point to?)
  • Two Row Wampum Social Layer and Matrilineal Council, by Dezirae Johnson and Harold Davis

IP case studies in textiles. Example: The National Movement of Maya Weavers. There are a few things going on with textiles IP. Large fashion houses copy traditional patterns and make lots of money off them, with no acknowledgement or sharing of profits to the people who created the designs and maintain the cultures and ecology that are part of the meaning of these patterns and symbols. There are also bio theft concerns related to the legalization and chemical extraction of psychedelic compounds. For example, some Bwiti leaders feel strongly that it is culturally dangerous to extract iboga into ibogaine, similar to the effects that extracting cocaine from the coca plant has on society.

Regional Working Groups

Local Blooms are essentially regional working groups, bringing diverse stakeholders and wisdom keepers together to collaborate on healthy, just bioregional economies. At a later stage of Bloom Network, we plan to implement topic-specific working groups to make better informed policy and finance decisions than politicians are typically able to make.

Example: Northeast Healthy Soil Network is a multi-stakeholder coalition formed around healthy soils, in the northeast United States. They thoroughly analyzed what leverage points different sets of people and organizations could focus on together to move toward healthy regional soils, waterways, and an equitable food system. While there are existing state-level working groups, to some extent they operate within siloed institutional structures and power dynamics. Whereas, cross-sector groups help achieve equitable and wise regional governance. 

Another example of a bioregional working group would be housing access and ownership continuity, bringing together methods such as permanent real estate cooperatives, community land trusts, and regenerative or carbon-negative building techniques. Cross-regional or global working groups could be hubs for leaders from different regions to share best practices and troubleshoot together, so that in aggregate we have more access to different adaptations that are emerging regionally. 

Structures for Managing Water

Water is tricky to regulate because it crosses geographic and policy boundaries in multiple ways. We recommend focusing on the scale of a bioregion or watershed, in collaboration with relevant existing entities.

Flood reduction and soil health improvement: For wetlands that are prone to increased flooding due to climate change, water parks can be used to buffer flooding. New Orleans’ Mirabeau Water Garden is one example. Soil health management helps draw water into the soil, prevents nutrient and toxin runoff, reduces risk of landslides, and increases topsoil available for high yield crops. Bloom Whangarai has scoped out a suburban flood mitigation approach using people’s yards as soil sponges – the purpose is both to educate people about soil and help them connect with nature, as well as to investigate if this approach could be effective at reducing flooding.

Successful projects: Regeneración Ecosistemas Perú is a gorgeous example of traditional Indigenous trade and ecosystem knowledge acting as a leader in watershed management, and restoring their economic and cultural sovereignty.

Self-Determination: Generally, we recommend loose on regulation (for most things) and deep on education and relationship building. In Bloom, local Blooms self determine their own budgets and what activities they focus on, based on the needs of their bioregion. 

Power dynamics 

In today’s finance structures for both business and government in a centralized nation-state, resources are siphoned from communities and oppressed peoples. We need more socially equitable leadership distribution, and different game dynamics for who has power and why. One major feature of bioregional governance will be designing finance collaboration to disrupt extractive power dynamics.

Web3 has the capacity to enable equitable power dynamics. None of the existing finance sector pathways really has healthy solutions for what needs to happen right now, on their own. Smart contracts can bridge institutional and community finance pathways. Cryptocurrency enables more efficient international collaboration. Quadratic Voting can result in higher fidelity democracy. Case study 1 (Colorado State House of Representatives). Case study 2 (Gitcoin Grants). Also see risks as per CICOLab’s Blackpaper.

Citizen Led Finance

Funder-field partnerships are a participatory philanthropy process where movement leaders and philanthropists come together to discuss strategic criteria and best placement of financial resources, rather than philanthropists who aren’t actively working day-to-day on the ground making the decisions. Examples include Femtheogen and Thriving Resilient Communities Collaboratory.

Regenerative Policy Frameworks

Here is a list of policy frameworks that can be adapted to other locations. Bloom is in touch with most of these coalitions if you would like an introduction to someone involved with the specific framework/movement.

Recommendation: develop policy frameworks at city and state levels that can easily be adapted in other industries/contexts. For example, policy for cooperatives that apply to multiple industries rather than solely finance or food, can greatly reduce the expense and increase the speed at which progressive, citizen-led finance can be rolled out.

Replicable business models will also support innovation and cooperative, place-based ownership. Bloom Network is exploring blockchain solutions to reward creators of models (templates) that other groups and people find valuable over time. 

Examples: Long Beach Fresh’s local food policy templates. Vallejo, California’s Participatory Budgeting approach (see below). WEPOWER’s neighborhood citizen-led investment model. Also see: Zebra’s Unite SXSW Panel: “Who Gets to Decide, Flipping Power Dynamics in VC”. For cooperatives policy, refer to Nathan Schneider and Sustainable Economies Law Center in the United States. (Gather more references from other countries.)

Governance Tools for Self-Organizing Teams

Trainers of Trainees Permaculture Programme

Trainers of Trainees Permaculture Programme

Broadfield Permaculture Group I Education Department. 
(Bloom Kampala)

Introduction to the TOT – Trainers of Trainees

This curriculum is by Broadfield Permaculture, a local Bloom based in Kampala, Uganda. We teach trainers to teach permaculture in schools across Uganda, which creates microclimate stabilization, women led cooperatives, and increased food security with indigenous plants and export crops.

We are learning in teams in the process of applying permaculture at different levels of education, primary, secondary, High school, Tertiary and community. 

Approaches on application and implementation differ depending on needs assessment with ability to creatively use the curriculum. 

Dates Tropics Activities Outcomes
Day 1  14th  Resilience in permaculture ecological design
Introduction Participant Expectations
Review of PDC  Curriculum Impact and Expectations 
Primary Model Canvas 
Strategic Permaculture Designing for Early Learners in Tropical Regions  -Tools 
Design Processes and application processes 
Day 2  15th Resilience supported by vivid replication at student’s home in cycle of three terms.Secondary Modal Canvas Strategic Learning and Resilience for secondary school and stake holders – Tools 
Day 3  16th Fair share of resilience strategies through involvement of others e.g. creation of  employment /jobs High School Modal Canvas Strategic designing for Upper secondary learning based in practical demonstration. 
School to home or community action.
Taking permaculture not as a subject but choice.
Day 4  17thInnovation and Practical advancement transformation with case study, demonstration in form of project, research, pilot project.Tertiary Modal Canvas on Resilience on Holistic Learning, innovation.Resilience and Resource growth.Skill Set Peer to Peer TrainingResearch Innovation Competence in Main Stream employment in Agriculture economics and Production. 
Day5  18thDiversification and ResilienceCommunity Modal Canvas PermEzone – Inclusive Decision making learning and Cooperative development.
Day 6 19th Design Project for students Group work on Design of Modal Canvas Project for each main stream.
Submission of Proposal of TOT projects 
Day 7 20th Presentations PresentationsKey focus on resilience ,Applicability, demonstration, economic, social and ecological empowerment.
Day 8 21st Presentation Presentation Ecological 
Day 9 22nd Presentation Awarding Ceremony and Guest of Honor. Certificate Confirmation.

Why TOT in Permaculture Design for Schools?

The Journey of Permaculture has been very long until we have managed to official succeed to see permaculture in the National Curriculum of Lower Secondary as it ascends to upper Secondary with still loose attachments in primary schools, the fact that the ministry of education and the direct beneficiaries have embraced permaculture they still face a big challenge of lack human resource (permaculture trained teachers or permaculture extension support to execute a result and practical oriented themes with the adaptable skill of learning the program). 

The program is offering an advanced training focusing on graduated PDC holders to uptake Implementation formation strategies on schools , both Primary , Secondary , Advanced learning and  Community. In addition to lead teams from designing, evaluation to resilience. 

Summary Matrix of themes of Advance Learning.

LevelThemes Indicator Outcomes Key Strategies 
Primary Practical Holistic Learning for Pupils and Teachers.Resilience in permaculture ecological designTeacher’s efficiency to support the pupils and the school.
Frame work on integration of permaculture skills in early learning. /school 
Introducing the concept and integrating it in science subjects.
Design for ecological resilience with absorbable practice and simplified permaculture language.
Lower Secondary( senior 1 to senior  4  )Practical Holistic learning for students to adapt the lessons at home grounds.Resilience supported by vivid replication at student’s home in cycle of three terms.Students are in position to demonstrate beyond school for self or home use to realise resilience. 
Framework to demonstrate the skills acquired.
Build on Permaculture concept and equip students with more knowledge on permaculture in order to interest them in taking permaculture as a choice but not a mare subject.
How many students end up taking permaculture as a choice but not as a subject.
They carry out permaculture projects and acquire a minimum credit of demonstration practice.
Design for learning both for academics and beyond school.
Curriculum Matching of activities in Lesson Planning. 
Upper Secondary High School- S.5 and S.6) Practical Holistic Learning adapts lessons beyond school and creates possibilities of a green job or project or Innovation.Fair share of resilience strategies through involvement of others e.g. creation of  employment /jobs Student self-sufficiency to self-employment and employing at a center of radical social impact social entrepreneurship.
Determination of taking on permaculture as a way of life. 
Mimicking of the Curriculum and creating possibilities of problem solving, using permaculture principles.
Vocational and University Undergraduates or Graduates)
Translating disciplines of learning to practical with permaculture principles direct and indirect Plug in support for resilience, innovation and outstanding troubleshooting.
Innovation and Practical advancement transformation with case study, demonstration in form of project, research, pilot project.
Scalable scope of implementation model/process with vivid replicability data /facts that offers financial visibility – self-reliance (that qualifies for seed fund). 
Social, ecological Impact based on permaculture principles on diverse resources available.
They should be Permaculture coaches , Innovators and proprietors of projects.

Innovation in creating opportunities with already existing disciplines of learning with plug in direct or indirect permaculture principles for resilience that satisfies economic, ecological and social needs without continuous dependence.
Community Peer to peer Learning – farmer to Farmer Permaculture education.Diversification and ResilienceParticipatory Learning – Inclusive solution development based on the needs of the bio region of the beneficiaries.
Establishing and Running community modal Farms. e.g. seedlings.
Adaptation of PermEzone Curriculum.
Design and Formation of Community owned Cooperative modal. 

Who should participate in this course and Possibilities of Employment?

This course will be specifically targeted to people who are holders of a permaculture Design Certificate that  are working with schools or communities, as well as individuals with main priority to rural farmers, interested to integrate Permaculture thinking into their own projects and work. Participants will include sponsored school teachers, community workers, farmers, NGO staff members, as well as individuals looking to gain a personal transformation. The participants will deepen their knowledge about the history, ethics, philosophy and goals of Permaculture.

Permaculture for Uganda School’s curriculum;

Permaculture is a powerful educational tool, how can we use it in schools to change campus culture, reduce waste, water run-off and covert nutrients in to healthy soil. This group will be considering how to bring permaculture much more into schools, the curriculum and the school campus culture. We have links to the Ministry for Education in Uganda as well as several key regional schools, our aim is to capitalize on these. Understanding methodologies of scalability at the centre of participatory approach.




1IntroductionsWorld problemsWhat is PermacultureEthics-Principles Characteristics
2Ecology Basic principlesDesign Methods Zones & SectorsMap Reading PracticalClimate and its Elements
3MicroclimatesSoils Practical exercise………………………………Water
5Windbreak DesignPatterns in NatureWorld Regions & CultureZone O Our Houses
6Zone I Vegetables/herbsZone II Fruit tree ForestZone II Animals in the OrchardZone III Field crops and Large Animals
7Zone IV Harvest ForestsZone V Natural ForestsSite Analysis PracticalWeed Ecology
8Wildlife ManageentIntegrated Pest ManagementIncomes from AcresAquaculture
9Design or DisasterBiotechnologyPractical Work on Large Design
10Bioregional – Local WealthEthical InvestmentPractical Work on Large Design
11Land Ethics & AccessVillage and Commune P/CSuburban P/CUrban PC
12Design WorkDesign Presentations …………………..…………..Evaluation

1 Students must attend 70% of the 72 hour course to receive their Certificate

2 Students must design: a. a home garden – by individual work and b. a village or commune – by group work

3 All the class groups work on the same village or commune village

4 This timetable is for a six hour day of theory and practical work

5 Teachers can present this timetable in any logical order which suits them



Unit One: Introduction

The teacher and students introduce themselves. The students explain why they have come and what they hope to get from their studies. The course outline, timetable, materials and references are discussed.

Unit Two: Characteristics, Principles, Ethics

This unit explains how permaculture is built on ideas and the creative ways to use these ideas. It shows how permaculture is concerned with clean air, water and soil, and the conservation of landscapes and species. The aim of building sustainable human societies, and the role of the principles and ethics in attaining these goals are discussed.


Unit Three: Principles of Ecology

Permaculture is based on ecology rather than the pure sciences. Its methods involve observation and deduction rather than prescription. This unit examines the key concepts of ecology including the flow of energy, cycles of matter, succession, limiting factors and perpetuations of ecosystems.

Unit Four: Methods of Design

There are several ways to design a landscape. Some of these are observation, deduction, analysis, maps, zones and sectors.

Unit Five: Map Reading

This unit shows how map reading helps us to understand ecosystems, soil types, water movement and microclimates. It assists with water harvesting and placing human structures such as roads, houses and dams.

Unit Six: Climate

Climate variation is increasing, and we need to be able to design landscapes to minimise the harmful effects of climate and/or take advantages of the different types of climate. This unit shows how we can reduce risk and energy use through design and selection of appropriate plants.

Unit Seven: Microclimates

This is where we work more closely on site. A large block is made up of many different microclimates. We learn to identify and design different microclimates.

Unit Eight: Soils

Soils tell you many things about plants and animals. Most soils are very damaged. There are different types of damage and different repair techniques. Most soils can be improved quickly. Traditional soil classifications integrate history, use and potential.

Unit Nine: Water and Landscape

Water is the basis of life. It is a precious resource and is fundamental to the rehabilitation of soils. This unit shows how water can be harvested and saved in many ways until needed by plants, animals and people.

Unit Ten: Earthworks

Moving Earth to build dams, houses and roads and change microclimates. Many expensive mistakes can be made in Earthworks. This unit looks at some guidelines to minimise or prevent these mistakes and maximize productivity.

Unit Eleven: Plants

Plants are used for many functions in a permaculture design and are basic to every design. Propagation methods are outlined, and the role of conserving local and heirloom species discussed.

Unit Twelve: Forests

Understanding forests and how they work is the basis of permaculture designs. A forest is an air-conditioner, soil binder, mulcher and windbreak. This unit shows that an understanding of how forests work enables us to design productive landscapes.

Unit Thirteen: Windbreaks

This unit discusses how windbreaks are needed in almost every landscape. They filter dust and disease, they slow down hot and cold winds, and they protect plants, animals and buildings. Each windbreak design is site specific.

Unit Fourteen: Patterns in Nature

Understanding the patterns of nature helps us to design highly productive, integrated landscapes. Patterns are linear or non-linear and include circles, spirals, streamlines, songs and sayings. They help us to interpret landscapes and improve designs.


Unit Fifteen: Broad Climatic Biozones

This unit shows how there are many climate zones in the world and how each one has special sustainable landscapes. Soils, water use, nutrients and traditional cultivation practices have evolved over a long time and are usually sustainable.

Unit Sixteen: Zone 0 – Sitting and Building Homes

This unit discusses the principles of designing a comfortable, low energy, non-polluting house.

Unit Seventeen: Zone I – The Family Food Garden

Everyone, from people in the city with tiny gardens to people with large blocks of land, can grow much of their own food. This unit shows how to grow vegetables, herbs and fruits in the zone 1 garden and explains the role of companion planting, crop rotation and sheet mulching.

Unit Eighteen: Zone II – The Food Forest

Good quality, chemically clean fruit is a security. This unit examines how an orchard is designed as a food forest with many mixed species supplying fruit all year. Some non-food species are planted to provide protection and fertilizer, and later, firewood.

Unit Nineteen: Zone IIA – Food Forests and Small Animals

Poultry is best kept in an orchard to prune plants, eat pests and provide fertilizer. This unit shows how small livestock such as chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons and bees are good orchard friends.

Unit Twenty: Zone III – Cropping & Large Animals

This unit describes how crops are grown and larger animals are included in the design of larger blocks of land. The practice of alley cropping is explained.

Unit Twenty One: Zone IV – Harvest Forests

We all use a lot of wood and other tree products in our lifetime. This unit shows how the structural or ‘harvest’ forest is where we try to grow all our own forestry needs for bark, firewood, furniture, dyes, mulches, oils and so on. The forest will eventually give a very good income and improve the ecosystem.

Unit Twenty Two: Zone V – Natural Forests

Natural or conservative forests are the natural, indigenous forests of a region. They keep soil, water and animal species stable. This unit discusses the importance of remnant forests and describes the techniques used to regenerate degraded bushland.


Unit Twenty Three: Weed Ecology

Many useful plants are classified as weeds. This unit shows how weed management entails understanding the whole ecosystem.

Unit Twenty Four: Wildlife Management

People and wildlife are often in conflict. Wildlife is in great danger from people. This unit shows how people and wildlife can live together in a well designed landscape.

Unit Twenty Five: Integrated Pest Management

Pests should be appreciated and managed, not eliminated. This unit explains how by understanding pest lifecycles and how predators work, damage can be minimized.

Unit Twenty Six: Site Analysis

Designers look carefully at a site to understand its good and bad points – both of which can be used in a design. This unit explains how to make an inventory of the land from which the design is developed.

Unit Twenty Seven: Design Graphics

A well-drawn plan helps to show clients what they can do to make their land more sustainable and more productive. The techniques used to draw plans are described in this unit.

Unit Twenty Eight: Creative Problem Solving

When designing land, there are always constraints which can be hard to solve creatively. This unit explains the steps in the design process which are used to solve problems and arrive at good solutions.

Unit Twenty Nine: Incomes From Acres

Every piece of land should pay for itself and make a profit. This unit suggests ways in which money can be made from the land, without destroying its resources.

Unit Thirty: Aquaculture

Water systems can be highly productive. The whole water system is an integrated ecosystem which includes fish, prawns, crabs, tortoises, insects and water plants. This unit describes how to design damns, select species and manage the system to maximise productivity.

Unit Thirty One: Designing Against Disaster

From war to drought, there are many destructive threats to humans and agricultural systems. This unit shows how good design strategies make landscapes more resistant to damage and more likely recover quickly.

Unit Thirty Two: Biotechnology

Biotechnology is changing the world through biological manipulations of plant and animal species. This unit opens up class discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology.


Unit Thirty Three: Bioregions

This unit discusses how we can make good, strong societies through the enrichment and empowerment of our bioregions. The role of the ethical directory is explained.

Unit Thirty Four: Economics & Ethical Investment

We can use money well or badly. This unit explains how we can set up our financial systems to meet our own needs and reduce our dependence on mainstream banking. The LETS case study is examined.

Unit Thirty Five: Land Access and Economics

Land is a resource and not a commodity. It is there to be cared for and to meet our needs. This unit explains how poor, indigenous and other dispossessed people can obtain access to land.

Unit Thirty Six: Land Ownership

Every person has the right to use land for shelter and to meet their food needs. This unit explains ways of owning land which protect it from future misuse.

Unit Thirty Seven: Legal Structures

This unit explains how we can protect ourselves through ethical legal organisations.

Unit Thirty Eight: Communities

Many people prefer to live in communities. This unit looks at the reasons why they succeed or fail.

Unit Thirty Nine: Suburban Permaculture

Suburban areas produce almost nothing despite having good resources in people, land and time. This unit shows how suburbs can become productive parklands and good places to live.

Unit Forty: Urban Permaculture

Cities are major consumers of resources and are major polluters. This unit suggests ways in which cities can be made more attractive and productive.